See enough animation of the working principle of 33 sets of heat exchangers and reaction equipment!

Original title: 33 sets of heat exchangers and reaction equipment working principle animation to see enough! Heat exchange equipment Single-stage adiabatic reactor The single-stage adiabatic reactor has simple structure and large production capacity. However, the disadvantage is that the temperature changes greatly during the reaction. It is applicable to the exothermic reaction with little reaction heat effect, and the reaction process allows a wide range of temperature changes; it is also applicable to the process with large heat effect, but not very sensitive to the reaction temperature, or the process with very fast reaction rate. Multistage adiabatic reactor Multi-stage adiabatic bed is divided into indirect heat exchange type and quench type (direct heat exchange type) according to the cooling or heating mode of reaction gas between stages. The former is suitable for exothermic reaction because of its small temperature fluctuation of catalyst bed, but its structure is complex, and it is difficult to load and unload the catalyst. The latter is suitable for exothermic reaction because of its simple structure, easy to load and unload the catalyst, and its temperature fluctuation of catalyst bed is small, but it has high requirements for operation. It can be made into a large catalytic reactor. Heat pipe heat exchanger Expand the full text Heat pipe is a kind of heat transfer element with high thermal conductivity, which transfers heat through the evaporation and condensation of working medium in a fully enclosed vacuum pipe shell. It has a series of advantages, such as high thermal conductivity, good isothermal property, arbitrary change of heat transfer area on both sides of cold and hot, long-distance heat transfer, temperature control and so on. Its disadvantage is poor oxidation resistance and high temperature resistance. This disadvantage can be solved by installing a set of ceramic heat exchanger in the front, which can better solve the problems of high temperature resistance and corrosion resistance. At present, it has been widely used in metallurgy, chemical industry, oil refining, boiler, ceramics, transportation, textile, machinery and other industries as an energy-saving equipment for waste heat recovery and heat energy utilization in the process, and has achieved remarkable economic benefits. Double Tube Heat Exchanger A heat exchanger with an inner tube in concentric tubes as the heat transfer element. Two pipes with different diameters are sleeved together to form a concentric sleeve. Each section of the sleeve is called a "pass". The inner pipe (heat transfer pipe) of the pass is connected by a U-shaped elbow, while the outer pipe is connected by a short pipe in turn to form a row, which is fixed on the bracket (a in the figure). Heat is transfer from one fluid to another through that wall of the inner tube. Generally, the hot fluid (A-fluid) is introduced from the upper part and the cold fluid (B-fluid) is introduced from the lower part. Both ends of the outer pipe of the sleeve are connected with the inner pipe by welding or flanges. The inner tube and the U-shaped elbow tube are connected by a flange, which is convenient for the cleaning, increase and decrease of the heat transfer tube. The effective length of each heat transfer tube is 4-7m. This kind of heat exchanger has a maximum heat transfer area of 18 square meters, so it is suitable for small capacity heat exchange. Spray type heat exchanger This kind of heat exchanger is also called spray cooler because the heat exchange tubes are fixed on the steel frame in rows, the hot fluid flows in the tubes, and the cooling water is sprayed evenly from the upper spray device. There is a layer of turbulent liquid film outside the tubes of the spray heat exchanger. The heat transfer coefficient outside the tube is much higher than that of the immersed type. In addition This kind of heat exchanger is mostly placed in the place where the air is circulating, and the evaporation of cooling water also takes away part of the heat, which can reduce the temperature of cooling water and increase the driving force of heat transfer. So ? Compared with the submerged type, the heat transfer effect of the spray type heat exchanger is greatly improved. Tubular heat exchanger The tubular exchanger is one of the most widely used heat exchangers in chemical industry and alcohol production. It is mainly composed of shell, tube plate, heat exchange tube, head, baffle and so on. The required materials can be made of ordinary carbon steel, red copper or stainless steel respectively. During heat exchange, one kind of fluid enters from the connecting pipe of the head, flows in the pipe, and flows out from the outlet pipe at the other end of the head, which is called tube side; another kind of fluid enters from the connecting pipe of the shell, and flows out from another connecting pipe on the shell, which is called shell side tubular heat exchanger. Heat exchanger with compensation ring A heat exchanger consisting of a baffle plate,hemp extraction centrifuge, a compensation ring and a heat release nozzle. When the fluid is at high temperature, the temperature difference between the shell and the tube bundle is too large, resulting in different thermal expansion rates, and the compensation ring is to eliminate this thermal stress. U-tube heat exchanger This kind of heat exchanger is characterized in that the tube bundle can be freely extended and retracted, so that thermal stress will not be generated due to the temperature difference between the tube and the shell, and the thermal compensation performance is good; the tube pass is a double tube pass, so that the flow path is long, the flow rate is high, and the heat transfer performance is good; the pressure bearing capacity is strong; the tube bundle can be drawn out from the shell, so that it is convenient for maintenance and cleaning; and the structure is simple, and the cost is low. However, it is inconvenient to clean the inside of the tube, and it is difficult to replace the tubes in the middle of the tube bundle. Because the bending radius of the innermost tube should not be too small, the tubes in the central part of the tubesheet are not compact, so the number of tubes should not be too large, and there is a gap in the central part of the tube bundle, which makes the shell-side fluid easy to short circuit and affect the shell-side heat exchange. Immersed coil heat exchanger Immersed coil heat exchanger is a kind of heat exchanger with coil as heat transfer element,decarboxylation after extraction, which is one of the types of dividing wall heat exchanger. This is an ancient heat exchange device. It is still widely used in modern times because of its simple structure, convenient manufacture, installation, cleaning and maintenance, low price, and especially suitable for the cooling and condensation of high-pressure fluids. However, the coil heat exchanger is bulky and heavy, and the metal consumption per unit heat transfer area is large, so the heat transfer efficiency is low. According to the different ways of fluid cooling outside the tube, the coil heat exchanger is divided into immersion type and spray type. This kind of heat exchanger is mostly made of metal tubes, or made into various conditions suitable for the container, and immersed in the liquid in the container. Jacketed heat exchanger The jacketed heat exchanger is a kind of recuperative heat exchanger, which is made by installing a jacket on the outer wall of the vessel and has a simple structure. However, its heating surface is limited by the wall of the vessel and its heat transfer coefficient is not high. In order to improve the heat transfer coefficient and make the liquid in the kettle heated evenly, a stirrer can be installed in the kettle. When cooling water or heating agent without phase change is introduced into the jacket ? Helical baffles or other means of increasing turbulence may also be provided in the jacket to increase the heat transfer coefficient on one side of the jacket. In order to make up for the deficiency of the heat transfer surface, a coil can also be installed inside the kettle. Jacketed heat exchangers are widely used for heating and cooling of reaction processes. Floating head heat exchanger A float head end structure of a novel floating head type heat exchange comprises a cylinder, an outer head cover side flange, a floating head tube plate, a hook re, a floating head cover, an outer head cover, screw holes, steel rings and that like, and is characterized in that a concave or trapezoidal sealing surface is arranged on the inner side surface of the outer head cover side flange, the outer side close to the sealing surface is drilled and threaded or welded with a plurality of screws which are uniformly distributed, The floating head tube plate sealing groove is an original concave groove, a trapezoidal groove which takes the center of the tube plate as the center of a circle and the radius of which is slightly larger than the outer diameter of a tube bundle is additionally arranged on the same end face, and the tube plate split-range groove is only communicated with the trapezoidal groove and is not communicated with the concave groove. Spiral plate heat exchanger The spiral heat exchanger is a kind of heat exchanger in which two parallel metal plates are rolled into two spiral channels, and the cold and hot fluids exchange heat through the spiral wall. There are two types of spiral plate heat exchangers: removable and non-removable. Reaction Equipment UASB reactor The UASB reactor consists of the following parts: the water inlet and distribution system, the tank body of the reactor, and the three-phase separator. The UASB reactor effluent is introduced as uniformly as possible into the bottom of the reactor and the effluent passes upwardly through a sludge bed containing granular or flocculent sludge. The anaerobic reaction occurs when wastewater and sludge particles come into contact. Biogas produced under anaerobic conditions leads to internal circulation, which is beneficial to the formation and maintenance of granular sludge. Sleeve regenerator The shell of the regenerator is a large steel cylinder, the upper part of the shell is a dilute phase zone, jacketed glass reactor ,jacketed glass reactor, and the lower part is a dense phase zone. The effective storage in dense phase zone is determined by coke burning load and coke burning intensity, and the volume of dense phase air can be determined according to the effective storage and solid density in dense phase zone. In order to avoid carrying out too much catalyst and increasing the loss of catalyst, the gas velocity in the dilute phase zone should not be too high, and the height of the dilute phase space from the dense phase zone upward to the inlet of the primary cyclone separator should be greater than TDH. Even so, there is still a certain concentration of catalyst in the dilute phase space. In order to reduce the loss of catalyst, the regenerator is equipped with two stages of cyclone separators in series. The diameter of the cyclone separator should not be too large. Several sets of cyclone separators are installed in the regenerator with large coke burning load. Their risers are connected to a gas collection chamber to guide the flue gas out of the regenerator. Sieve plate regenerator The main function of the regenerator is to burn off the coke on the coked catalyst to restore the activity of the catalyst, which requires heat. Gasifier for Quenching Process of Ammonia Plant with Daily Output of Thousand Tons The figure is a sectional view of the gasifier for the quenching process of synthetic ammonia. Reducer After absorbing the carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide in the gas, the copper liquid flows out from the bottom of the reflux tower and is sent to the bottom of the reflux tower after being decompressed by the pressure reducing valve. The copper liquid is sprayed down and meets the regenerator countercurrent desorbed from the regenerator. The copper liquid flows out of the reflux tower, enters the tube array from the bottom of the lower heater, is indirectly heated by the key hot copper liquid, flows upward along the ascending tube array, enters the intermediate reducer, and then enters the upper heater. Boile heat boiler proces gasifier The figure shows the sectional structure of the gasifier of the boiling heat boiler. TEXACO gasifier The coal water slurry is pressurized by a high-pressure coal slurry pump, mixed with high-pressure oxygen by a Texaco burner and sprayed into the combustion chamber of the gasifier in the form of mist, a complex gasification reaction is carried out in the combustion chamber, the generated coal gas (called synthesis gas) and slag enter the quenching chamber of the gasifier through a quenching ring and a downcomer for cooling, and the cooled synthesis gas enters a carbon scrubber through a nozzle scrubber. The slag falls into the bottom of the chilling chamber for cooling and solidification, and is discharged regularly. Radial fixed bed reactor The gas in a radial fixed-bed reactor flow in that radial direction in each cross section perpendicular to the reactor axis. The gas flow path is short and the flow velocity is low, which can greatly reduce the pressure drop of the catalytic bed and provide conditions for the use of small particle catalysts. The key of the design is to reasonably design the flow channel to make the gas flow on each cross section equal, the manufacturing requirement of the distribution flow channel is higher, and the catalyst is required to have higher mechanical strength, so as not to damage the catalyst and block the distribution pores and destroy the uniform distribution of the fluid. Tubular fixed bed reactor Tubular reactor is a kind of continuous operation reactor with tubular shape and large ratio of length to diameter. Among The tubular heat exchanger has the advantages of large heat transfer area, good heat transfer effect, easy control of catalyst bed temperature, fast reaction rate and high selectivity, but has the disadvantages of complex structure and high equipment cost, and is suitable for reactions with large thermal effect. Tubular reactors with multi-tube parallel structure are generally used for gas-solid phase reaction, such as the reaction of gas-phase HCl and acetylene in a reactor with multi-tube parallel structure and solid phase catalyst to produce vinyl chloride. Venturi absorber The Venturi absorber has the advantages of simple structure, small equipment, small occupied space, high gas velocity, large treatment capacity, good gas-liquid contact and easy mass transfer, and is particularly suitable for trapping fine particles in the gas flow. However, due to the concurrent flow of gas and liquid, the gas-liquid contact time is short, which is not suitable for the absorption of gas and liquid which are difficult to dissolve or have slow reaction speed, and the pressure loss is large (800 ~ 9000 H), and the energy consumption is high. Commonly used circular horizontal adsorber The organic waste gas is filtered to remove solid particulate matter and enters the adsorption tank from top to bottom. The organic matter is captured, adsorbed and concentrated by activated carbon. The purified air is discharged into the atmosphere from the lower part of the tank through the main fan. Square vertical adsorber The waste gas enters the square vertical adsorber through the air duct, passes through the packing layer, and is fully contacted and absorbed by the adsorbent to obtain purified gas, which is discharged into the atmosphere by the fan. Moving bed adsorber For adsorbers such as moving bed adsorber, fresh adsorbent is added from the top of the tower, and the addition rate is based on the principle of maintaining a certain contact height between gas and solid phase; a device at the bottom of the tower continuously removes the saturated adsorbent, which is sent to another vessel for regeneration and then returned to the top of the tower. The treated gas enters from the bottom of the column and flows upward through the adsorbent bed to the top of the column. A supporting grid is arranged at the bottom of the tower. There are two types of downflow moving packed tower and plate tower. Suitable for applications requiring high adsorbent gas ratios and less useful for pollution control. Its advantages are high quantity of gas to be treated and cyclic use of adsorbent. The attrition and consumption of adsorbents is a major management problem, requiring adsorbents with high wear resistance. Fluidized bed adsorber Fluidized bed adsorber is a type of adsorber developed in recent years. In the fluidized bed adsorber, the adsorbent particles distributed on the sieve plate are strongly stirred and float up and down under the action of high-speed airflow. The mass transfer and heat transfer rate in the adsorbent is fast, the bed temperature is uniform, and the operation is stable. The disadvantage is that the adsorbent is seriously worn. In addition, the gas flow is back-mixed with the bed particles, and all the adsorbent particles are kept in balance with the outlet gas, and there is no "adsorption wave", so all the adsorbents are kept at a relatively low saturation, otherwise the concentration of pollutants in the outlet gas is not easy to meet the emission standards, so it is less used for waste gas purification. Centrifugal extractor It is characterized by that in the centrifugal force field, firstly, the mixture is fully mixed to promote the transfer of solute, and then the two-phase liquid is separated and discharged. The light phase liquid is fed from near the wall of the drum and the heavy liquid phase is fed from the center of the drum. A two-phase dispersed countercurrent contact is formed in the drum. Finally, when the two phases reach the other end of the rotary drum, the light and heavy liquid phases are respectively concentrated and discharged at the center and the inner wall of the rotary drum. A centrifugal extractor is manufacture by utilizing that structure of a tubular, multi-chamber and disc-type centrifuge, so that the characteristics of high separation factor and large axial length of the tubular centrifuge, suitability for treating two-phase liquid with small density difference, high dispersion degree of the chamber and disc-type centrifuge on the two-phase liquid, large contact area, long residence time and the like are fully exerted, And then the two phase flows are concentrated separately. Stratification of Combustion in a Fixed Bed Gas Producer According to the procedure of gasification process in the gas producer, the inner part of the producer can be divided into six layers (see the structural diagram of the mixed gas producer): 1) Ash layer; 2) Oxide layer (also called fire layer); 3) a reduction layer; 4) a retort lay; 5) a drying layer; 6) a hollow layer, wherein the oxide layer and the reduction layer are collectively referred to as a reaction layer The dry distillation layer and the drying layer are also collectively referred to as the coal preparation layer. Gasification Furnace for Quenching Process of Coal Water Slurry Gasification This figure is a sectional view of the gasifier for the quenching process of the coal-water slurry gasification process. Gas producer with diameter of 2.74 m Coal gas producer is the production equipment that converts coal into combustible gas-coal gas (the main components are CO, H2, CH4, etc.). The working principle is as follows: after the coal meeting the gasification process index is screened, it is added into the gas furnace by the stoker, and the mixed gas of self-produced steam and air is blown from the bottom of the furnace as the gasification agent. Coal generates combustible gas through physical and chemical reactions in the furnace, and the upper section of coal gas filters tar through a cyclone oil remover and an electric catcher. The gas in the lower section is cleaned by the cyclone dust collector. After mixing, it is delivered to the user for use. Design of reaction zone and three-phase separator After the mixed fluid enters the three-phase separator, it turns to both sides under the blocking action of the reflection cone. As the bubbles are continuously condensed in the process of gas rising, the bubbles are larger, resulting in faster rising speed and slower water flow speed. Therefore, the bubbles gradually separate from the mud-water mixture in the process of rising and enter the gas collection chamber, while the mud-water mixture enters the settling area. Due to the elimination of the lifting effect of bubbles, the flow state of the water in the settling area is laminar flow, and the flow velocity is gradually reduced in the rising process, so that the sludge is settled and slides back to the reaction area along the surface of the cone. Basic Structure of Contact Oxidation Pond The treatment structure of biological contact oxidation method is submerged aerated biofilter, which is also called biological contact oxidation pond. The basic process comprises a primary sedimentation tank, a biological contact oxidation tank and a secondary sedimentation tank. A filler is arranged in the biological contact oxidation tank, the filler is submerged in the wastewater, a biofilm is fully grown on the filler, and organic matters in the wastewater are adsorbed, oxidized, decomposed and converted into a new biofilm by microorganisms during the contact process of the wastewater and the biofilm. The biofilm falling off from the filler is removed after flowing to the secondary sedimentation tank along with the water, and the wastewater is purified. In the contact oxidation tank, the oxygen needed by microorganisms comes from the water, while the wastewater continuously replenishes the lost dissolved oxygen from the bubbling air. The air is supplied by an air distribution system arranged at the bottom of the pool. Vertical multi-end incinerator Vertical pyrolysis incinerator is an environmentally friendly incinerator, which belongs to the third generation of incinerators. Compared with reciprocating grate incinerators and fluidized bed incinerators, it has the characteristics of high incineration efficiency, low tail gas emissions, low dust emissions and low ignition loss. The vertical pyrolysis incinerator can be used to treat municipal solid waste, hospital special waste, airport special waste and some industrial solid waste. It is suitable for the treatment of garbage with low calorific value and high moisture in China. Source: Chemical 707 We declare that we are committed to protecting the copyright of the author. Some works come from the Internet and cannot verify the true source. If infringement is involved,50l rotovap, please contact us to delete it in time. All disputes caused by reprinting this article from the public number to other platforms have nothing to do with this platform. Support original, welcome to contribute, please send your article to the Return to Sohu to see more Responsible Editor:.

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