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Original Title: Analysis of the Most Complete Stone Mining Technology and Equipment in History The most complete stone mining technology and equipment in history For your reference. This article is divided into four sections for you to sort out. The article is long, so you can collect it first. Read patiently, welcome to forward and share! [Types and Elements of Stone Mines] [Deposit development and development transportation method] [Mining process of stone deposit] [Classification of Mining Methods for Stone Mines] [Types and Elements of Stone Mines] I. Types of Stone Mines The types of stone mines include open-pit mining and underground mining. Open-pit mining is divided into hillside open-pit mining, sunken open-pit mining and well mining. Underground mining is divided into cave mining and shaft mining. 1. Open-pit mining: A stone mine in which the overburden and weathered layer on the surface of the stone ore body need to be stripped before mining. An open trench is dug from the ground and a working face is created to extract the block from the working face. According to the topographic conditions of deposit burial, the mining above the lowest level of stope surface is called hillside open-pit mining; the mining below the lowest level of stope surface is called depression open-pit mining. Open-pit mining on hillside: Basically according to the principle of top-down mining sequence. Expand the full text Hillside open-pit mine Open pit mining: Basically according to the principle of top-down mining sequence. Sunken open-pit mine Well-type mining: In fact, it is a special case of open pit mining. With the deepening of stone mining operations, many stone mines have gradually evolved from hillside open-pit type to depression open-pit type, and eventually to well mining. The depth of many well-type mines in foreign countries exceeds 50 meters, or even reaches 80 meters or more. Portuguese pink marble CARRARA, Italy 2. Underground mining: Stone mines that need to be excavated from the surface to reach the ore body can be divided into roadway (cave) mining and chamber (roadway) mining. Cave type: Open-pit mines with steep mountain shape, large amount of stripping and extremely dangerous mining operations, such as some marble mines in Baoxing County, Sichuan Province; sunken open-pit mines with inclined ore bodies, with the increase of mining depth, need to strip a large thickness of overburden, such as white marble mines in Fangshan, Beijing; With the increase of mining depth, the mining of some well-type marble mines will not be able to continue. The cave mining method will make the mining operation more practical. The main mining process is similar to that of the sunken open-pit mine, but the difference is that a rectangular channel development process is added before the formal mining, and a new free surface is developed on the ore body with only one free surface. 1997 CARRARA Marble Mine-4 (Tunneling) Shaft type: Use the roadways left by other engineering, transportation facilities or mining projects to pass through the stone mines excavated inside the roadways. II. Composition elements of open pit 1-Work platform 2-Safety Platform 3-Cleaning platform 4-Transport channel α, β-final slope angle GF-Lower final line of open pit H-Final mining depth of open pit AB-Upper final boundary line of open pit ABGHF-Final state of open pit 1. Bench: When stone is mined in the open pit, the ore body to be mined is usually divided into horizontal layers with a certain thickness and mined layer by layer from top to bottom. When two or more horizontal slices are mined at the same time, a certain advance distance shall be kept between the upper and lower slices. A step shape is formed in the space during the mining process and at the end of the mining process. These step-like working surfaces are called steps. The bench is the basic element of the stone open pit, and also the unit of the independent quarry operation. 2. Working platform: horizontal part of each step 3. Safety platform: the stope boundary is reserved to ensure the safety of the lower production platform and the stability of the slope. 4. Cleaning platform: one cleaning platform shall be set every 2-3 safety platforms. 5. Transportation channel: transportation road between the ground and each horizontal layer. [Deposit development and development transportation method] I. Deposit development (transportation system) 1. Concept: It is a transportation channel connecting each working bench inside the mine to the block yard or the external transportation system and the waste rock yard, and plays a role in preparing various tunnel projects of new mining level in time. Set up a connection stone quarry. Engineering of the transport system of the yard and transport ground 。 2. Tasks: (1) The mined blocks are transported outward or sent to the block yard. (2) Transport the waste rocks and muck to the waste rock yard (3) Transport tools, materials, equipment and personnel into or out of the working face. Straight Ditch Road Transportation System of Blue Pearl Granite Mine in Norway Larvik Mine, Norway II. Development of transportation methods 1. Highway development and single automobile transportation Applicable conditions: simple terrain, (few bends, large radius), small stope height difference, large range, convenient for highway line development, large block specifications, large transportation volume, and small highway capital construction quantities. 2. Applicable conditions for transportation and development of slope winch Mines with complex terrain, large elevation difference (20º ~ 40º), small mining area, hillside or sunken mining area with difficulty in highway development to transport blocks with small size, and small amount of waste rock and soil. The slope hoist is generally located outside the mining boundary. In the stope, the blocks need to be loaded on the trolley by other means of transportation. 3. Applicable conditions for joint development of fixed mast crane and truck transportation Mines with large stope height difference, small range, complex terrain, difficult road development, and less waste rock and dregs. The mast crane is usually located at the edge of the stope. The blocks outside the hoisting range shall be transported to the hoisting range of the mast crane by the traction winch or loader, and then lifted to the truck of the transport platform by the mast crane. 4. Development of aerial ropeway transportation The rope crane is used to complete the loading, lifting, transportation and loading operations at one time. Applicable conditions: stone mines with complex and steep terrain, large elevation difference, deep valleys, difficult highway development, large investment, small scale and small block size. 5. Applicable conditions for open chute transportation and development The terrain is complex, the elevation difference is large, the slope is steep (greater than 40º), and there is a shortage of capital construction funds. 6. Joint development [Mining process of stone deposit] The mining process is divided into seven processes: Stripping — Separation — Top turning — Segmentation — Shaping — Hoisting and transportation — Slag removal and waste discharge 1. Stripping 1. Basic concepts (1) Stripping range: all parts within the mining range that do not meet the processing and use requirements; (2) External stripping: the stripping of the surface and surrounding parts of the mineable ore body that do not meet the processing and use requirements before the mining of the deposit, so as to expose the mineable parts; (3) Internal stripping: the stripping of the part inside the ore body that cannot become blocks due to the existence of joints,rock drilling tools, fissures and vein rocks. (4) Stripping ratio: refers to the ratio of the amount of earth and stone stripped to the volume of block mined. (5) Block rate: the ratio of the volume of blocks mined within a certain mining range to the volume of raw ore within the range is called the block rate. 2. Basic principle: simultaneous mining and stripping, stripping first 3. Requirements: The integrity and block formation of the ore body shall not be affected. Butterfly Green (XIII) II. Separation-the main process of stone mining 1. Concept: separate the strip-shaped block stone with a volume several times that of the block from the ore body. 2. Requirements: (1) Do not damage the ore body and ore-take protective measures (2) The specification size of the strip block stone shall be equal to the integral multiple of the specification size of the block plus the processing amount required for dividing the block. (3) According to the natural conditions of the ore body, make full use of natural fissures and bedding. (4) According to the technical performance of the mining equipment, give full play to the role of the equipment, improve efficiency and reduce costs. The width of the strip block stone is generally the height of the mining bench, and the length is a part of the mining bench. Three, top turn over-fall stone 1. Purpose: It is convenient to divide into blocks according to the required specifications. 2. Method: traction winch, loader, top stone machine, water pressure package and air pressure package. 3. Key points: use protective measures to prevent the stone from breaking when it is overturned. The kerf width of diamond saw mining is only 12 mm. When all the stones are separated from the ore body, it is very difficult to move or overturn the stones weighing hundreds of tons from the ore body directly through the 12 mm kerf. At present, domestic stone mines generally adopt the method of drilling a 25 × 25 × 50cm stone trough on the parent ore body and placing a hydraulic stone jacking machine to separate the stone from the displacement, which destroys the integrity of the ore body after the trough is drilled and affects the outturn rate of the ore body behind. New technology of air pressure pushing bag: The pneumatic pushing bag is inserted into the 12 mm saw kerf formed by the beaded wire sawing, and the compressed air is used to inflate the bag, so that the bag expands to generate dozens of tons of thrust, and the lever principle is used to push the stone to move or turn it over, so that the stone can be disintegrated in the subsequent process to produce blocks. The bag body is made of high-strength polymer rubber material and can be repeatedly stretched and used. Air pressure push bag (I) Air pressure push bag (II) Air pressure push bag (III) 4. Partition Dividing the strip block stones into rough blocks or blocks on the overturned strip block stones according to the specification of the required blocks. Quarry stone: a cuboid or cube with certain specifications and no cracks, which can meet the processing requirements of decorative plates. Rough block: the shape basically meets the specification requirements of the block, but the surface is uneven, with a positive error of more than 3,dth hammer bit, and the block stone needs to be shaped. Metering block: the actual metered volume of the block after inspection. It is the actual effective volume of the block after deducting the excess volume caused by the size deviation. Methods: Chiseling, splitting, sawing, mechanical drilling and cutting, controlled blasting. Five, plastic surgery 1. Purpose: Trim the rough blocks into blocks that meet the requirements of specifications, so as to reduce the redundant workload in hoisting, transportation and processing and reduce the cost. For example, if the top surface of granite blocks is shaped and leveled by a fixed bead saw, the total error of the flatness is within 2cm, and the total error of the flatness only by manual leveling is up to 10 cm, and the time required for the saw blade of a sand saw to complete the "cut-in" stage is nearly doubled. 2. Method: wedging, splitting and sawing According to the shaping method, the blocks are divided into two categories: a. Saw face block (SS): All six sides are blocks shaped by the sawing method. b. Split face block (CS): Block with one or more sides shaped by chiseling 3. Shaping equipment: Large diameter circular saw, chain arm shaping machine, diamond band saw shaping machine, bead saw shaping VI. Hoisting and transportation 1. Mast crane (mast crane) Large lifting capacity, wide service range, strong adaptability, easy operation, high equipment price, large installation or displacement workload, slow lifting speed. The maximum lifting weight of 50 tons means that 18 cubic meters of block can be lifted. 2. Truck (wheeled) crane Need to install fixed feet, poor road adaptability, large tire loss, small lifting capacity, strong flexibility and versatility. 3. Crawler crane Can be directly hoisted, does not need to install fixed support legs, and has strong adaptability to roads, large lifting capacity and strong flexibility. Crawler crane 4. Front end loader: The multipurpose mining equipment can be used for shoveling, stripping, hoisting, hauling, cleaning working steps, prying stones and other operations. 5. Crawler excavator: As above, the front end is the loading device and the rear end is the digging device. 6. Gantry crane A crane of the bridge type in which a horizontal bridge is set on two legs to form a gantry. Gantry crane 7. Cable crane A bridge crane in which the trolley travels on a carrying rope. 8. Traction winch (1) Mine multi-purpose equipment can be used for: ① Traction power of slope winch ② Pull the blocks to the working range of the lifting equipment ③ Expanding joints and pouring stones ④ Power of lifting equipment (2) Operation mode: Various hauling operations can be completed by configuring different pulleys. VII. Slag removal and waste discharge Before the construction of stone mines, it is necessary to consider the construction of a dregs yard with sufficient capacity, which is a necessary preparation for continued production and safe production. Attention should be paid to the protection of resources, the protection of the environment, the comprehensive utilization and the improvement of efficiency. According to the requirements of the Technical Specification for Decorative Stone Open-pit Mines, Mining Drilling Equipment ,DHD Drill bit, the comprehensive recovery rate of decorative stone mines should not be less than 50%. [Classification of Mining Methods for Stone Mines] I. Mining method: Splitting, blasting, cutting, burning, etc. II. Selection basis of mining method: 1. Geological conditions of the deposit: joint occurrence, development degree, orebody shape … The thick orebody is favorable for mechanized mining, and the thin orebody is suitable for manual mining. Chisel hole splitting method should be used if the fissures and joints are developed and irregular 2. Rock type For example, basalt and gabbro without quartz can not be cut by flame, and the compressive strength of the rock is about 30 times of the tensile strength and 10 times of the shear strength. The splitting wedge is used to produce compressive tension on the rock to break the rock, which is especially suitable for deposits with developed horizontal joints and fissures. 3. Mine scale: 4. Specifications of blocks required: 5. Physical and geographical conditions: 6. Environmental protection requirements: 7. Technical and economic indicators: 8. Output, efficiency and benefit: Chisel split method I. Splitting mechanism and applicable conditions Mechanism: 1. The tensile strength of rock is relatively small. 2. The principle of "splitting" is applied to produce greater tension on the rock, and the rock breaks after being stressed. 3. When wedging, the action time of the force is short, the speed is fast, and the kinetic energy of the wedge is large. Applicable conditions: 1. It is applicable to rocks with nearly horizontal cracks. 2. The tensile strength of granite is less than that of marble, so it is more suitable for granite mining. 3. Rock is an anisotropic body with different tensile strengths in different directions, so the parameters of wedge holes are also different in different directions. 2. Artificial wedging and splitting method 1. Types and structures of tools-wedges A — Flat wedge; B — Pyramid wedge; C — Compound wedge 2. Operation method: hand-held rock drill For manual wedging and splitting of shallow holes and deep holes (rows of holes drilled on the splitting surface), the spacing between rows of holes is related to the splitting performance, and the minimum spacing is only 10-15 cm 3. Advantages and disadvantages: simple tool, simple method and low cost The labor intensity is high, the efficiency is low, the squareness of the block is poor, and the shaping workload is large. When mining granite, it is generally necessary to drill 10 meters of holes for each cubic meter of total ore and rock. According to the calculation of 30% of the block rate, it is necessary to drill 30-40 meters of holes for each cubic meter of finished block. Shallow borehole artificial splitting Disintegrating large granite material by artificial splitting method Shaping granite blocks by artificial splitting method Deep hole manual splitting mining disintegration separation body III. Splitting method of hydraulic splitting machine The principle is the same as that of manual splitting, which usually refers to the use of hydraulic splitters and deep-hole splitting for mining. Compared with the manual wedging method, the method ensures the consistency of hole arrangement and splitting, reduces the labor intensity and improves the efficiency. During operation, a drill hole for placing the hydraulic composite splitting wedge is drilled on a rock by a rock drill according to the presplitting direction, the hydraulic composite splitting wedge is placed in the hole, the splitting wedge and a hydraulic pump station are connected, high-pressure oil is transmitted to a hydraulic splitting head through an oil pipe, the hydraulic splitting wedge generates extrusion tension to two walls in the hole under the action of the high-pressure oil, and the rock is broken after being stressed. Borehole blasting method Applicable conditions: for all kinds of rocks with few natural fissures, separate large stones from rock mass by slight blasting Classification of methods: It can be roughly divided into ordinary blasting, conventional controlled blasting and grooved controlled blasting. Advantages: simple operation, high efficiency, strong applicability and low cost Disadvantages: poor squareness, low block rate, reduced stone strength, and many unsafe factors I. Ordinary blasting method 1. Agent: black powder 2. Blasting parameters: Hole diameter: 30 ~ 40 mm Hole spacing: horizontal hole spacing: 1 ~ 1.5m; Vertical pitch: 0.8 ~ 1.2m Hole depth: horizontal hole depth: 45 ~ 60% of separation block width Vertical hole depth: 60 ~ 80% of the height of the separation block Charge: 20 ~ 25% of hole depth Detonation: detonator or electric detonator Note: Measures to prevent excessive concentration of blasting force: Block charge and gun hole should not be packed too tightly II. Controlled blasting 1. Concept: Controlled blasting is a kind of precisely designed blasting with different explosives and ignition methods, which can not only achieve the desired effect, but also control the hazards caused by blasting within the specified allowable range. This kind of blasting with dual control of blasting effect and blasting hazards is called controlled blasting. 2. Agent: Black powder, detonating cord, No.2 rock explosive, blasting tube, metal incendiary agent, static expansion agent (1) Detonating cord: It takes the single substance high explosive RDX or TEK as the core, and its external image is the fuse, slightly thin, and the color is mostly red. The explosive charge of the detonating cord in China is 12 ~ 14 G/m, and the detonation velocity is 6500 ~ 6800 m/s. It can be detonated by fire detonator or electric detonator, and the hole spacing is 20 ~ 40. The internal drilling medium for placing the detonating cord can be air or water. Mining site by detonating cord controlled blasting (2) Metal incendiary agent (high-energy incendiary agent): The metal oxidant reacts with the metal reducing agent to generate high-temperature expansion gas, and the rock is cracked under the combined action of the expansion pressure and the thermal effect. Such as: 2Al + 3MnO2 = Al2O3 + 3Mn + 221 kcal (or + 9.52 × 105 J) Commonly used oxidants: MnO2, CuO, Fe3O3 … Commonly used reducing agents: Al, Mg, Fe + Mg … (3) Static expansion agent: Calcium oxide, inorganic salt and organic additives, and the tension generated by the volume expansion of the reaction after adding water. Such as: CaO + H2O-Ca (OH) 2 + 15.5 kcal, with volume expansion of 3 times, the expansion stress is about 30 ~ 50Mpa (the tensile strength of rock is about 5 ~ 12MPa). Mechanical cutting method Concept: Separation of rock blocks or blocks directly from the rock mass with the aid of mechanical equipment in accordance with the required block specification The invention has the advantages of no damage to the ore body and the block, flat cutting surface, no need of shaping, high block rate, large block size, low labor intensity and high production efficiency. Advanced technology, technology and equipment. Common equipment: rock drill, steel cable stone sawing machine, diamond wire saw, chain saw, disc saw. 1. Steel cable stone sawing machine sawing method It appeared at the end of the 19th century and was used for marble mining with quartz sand as raw material. It was discontinued at the end of the 20th century. II. Diamond wire saw cutting method 1. Equipment composition: (1) Driving device (2) Diamond rope (3) Working column and guide wheel The steel wire rope is sealed by spring, injection molding, rubber injection, etc. Fixed diamond bead 2. Working methods: (1) Ring traction cutting method When the ore body has two or more free surfaces, a horizontal hole and a vertical hole are drilled along the designed sawing surface, so that the two holes are connected and on the same cutting surface. (2) Rope pressing and cutting method When the number of the free surfaces of the ore body is less than two, a hole is drilled on the working face of the bench, a rope pressing wheel is arranged on a multi-purpose drilling machine or a cutting upright post and is placed in the hole, and a carborundum rope bypasses the rope pressing wheel and forms a closed loop with a driving wheel of a sawing machine to work. Diamond wire saw traction cutting Diamond wire saw traction cutting 3. Applicable conditions of diamond wire saw It can be used for full sawing and mining of marble and granite or combined mining with other equipment; it can also be used for stone processing and block shaping. 4. Advantages and disadvantages The mining cost is high, but the sawing surface is flat, the sawing area is large, and the block rate is high 4. Sawing method of arm-type stone sawing machine According to the cutting tool, it is divided into: 1) fixedly instal a hard alloy or diamond segment cutting edge on a cutting arm transmission chain to form a hard alloy cut chain or a diamond cutting chain; 2) Polyurethane injection molded cutting tape with diamond cutting segments. The main body of the diamond cutting belt is a rectangular diamond segment threaded on six side-by-side stainless steel wire ropes for aviation, and the segments are all sealed by special polyurethane injection molding. BENETTI, Italy JB-990 mining band saw vertical cutting operation The vertical and horizontal cutting of the ore body can be carried out, and the vertical and horizontal cutting positions can be quickly and flexibly switched at the same installation position. It is suitable for the mining of soft stones such as marble, limestone and travertine with medium hardness. At present, the maximum vertical cutting depth of large chain arm saw can reach 8 meters, the longest horizontal cutting depth can reach 4.8 meters, and the chain width is generally 33.5 mm. The maximum cutting depth of the mining band saw can reach 4.8 meters, and the width of the saw gap is generally 38 mm. At present, the maximum vertical cutting depth of the arm saw has reached 8 m, and the mining bench with a height of 8 m can be mined. 5. Disc stone sawing machine sawing method A saw blade with a diameter of 4.2 m can be mined to a height of 1.9 m, and the main machine of the circular saw and the saw blade are moved during mining. The diameter of the saw blade used for mining circular saw blade is 1600 4200 mm, and it is usually used in groups of 2 or 3 pieces. If the cutting depth is 1.25 m, the combination of saw blades with diameters of 1.6m, 2.2m and 2.8m can be used; if the cutting depth is 1.9 m, the combination of saw blades with diameters of 2.2m, 3m and 4.2m can be used. The final width of the kerf is 15-20 mm. Photo of vertical sawing by double-blade mining circular saw with a diameter of 3.5m Flame rock cutter cutting method I. Cutting mechanism: Use the flame of the flame thrower to burn the rock to form a cutting surface to divide the rock. It can only be cut vertically. The loss of the cutting groove is large. In the case of three free surfaces, two surfaces are generally cut at most. It is better to cut only one surface, and the other two surfaces are separated by blasting or wedge method. Due to the difference of thermal expansion coefficients of different minerals in the rock, quartz changes from α-quartz to β-quartz at 573 ℃, and the volume of quartz decreases, resulting in disintegration. II. Applicable conditions: Vertical cutting of rocks with high quartz content, not horizontal cutting. The higher the quartz content is, the higher the cutting efficiency is; the lower the quartz content is, the lower the cutting efficiency is. III. Equipment composition: Air compressor, oil supply system, oxygen supply system, flame thrower Operation Drawing of Downward Trench Excavation by Flame Cutting Machine IV. Advantages and disadvantages: High efficiency (1.5 ~ 2.5 ㎡/H), flexibility, large cutting depth (up to 10 m), large cutting area, smooth cutting surface, not affected by season and climate. High noise (100 ~ 120 db), high dust, high fuel consumption, high cost (200 ~ 250 yuan/㎡) and high labor intensity, so it must be combined with other mining methods. Flame cutting machine combined with hand-held rock drill,fastest dth hammer, drilling row holes combined with splitting mining method (referred to as burning rock drilling mining method) is the traditional, longest and most widely used granite mining method. Copyright notice If it involves copyright issues, please contact us to delete it! Return to Sohu to see more Responsible Editor:. wt-dthtools.com

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